This is the revised second edition of the well-received book by the first two authors. It offers a systematic treatment of the theory of vector bundles with integrable connection on smooth algebraic varieties over a field of characteristic 0. Special attention is paid to singularities along divisors at infinity, and to the corresponding distinction between regular and irregular singularities. The topic is first discussed in detail in dimension 1, with a wealth of examples, and then in higher dimension using the method of restriction to transversal curves.The authors develop a new approach to classical algebraic/analytic comparison theorems in De Rham cohomology, and provide a unified discussion of the complex and the p-adic situations while avoiding the resolution of singularities.They conclude with a proof of a conjecture by Baldassarri to the effect that algebraic and p-adic analytic De Rham cohomologies coincide, under an arithmetic condition on exponents.As used in this text, the term “De Rham cohomology” refers to the hypercohomology of the De Rham complex of a connection with respect to a smooth morphism of algebraic varieties, equipped with the Gauss-Manin connection. This simplified approach suffices to establish the stability of crucial properties of connections based on higher direct images. The main technical tools used include: Artin local decomposition of a smooth morphism in towers of elementary fibrations, and spectral sequences associated with affine coverings and with composite functors.