1. Introduction. 2. Diverse Phenomena in Stage-n Graphite Alkali-Intercalation Compounds. 3. Effect of Nitrogen Doping on the Li Storage Capacity of Graphene Nanomaterials: A First-Principles Study. 4. Fundamental Properties of Li+-Based Battery Anode: Li4Ti5O12. 5. Diversified Properties in 3D Ternary Oxide Compound: Li2SiO3. 6. Electrolytes for High-Voltage Lithium-Ion Battery: A New Approach With Machine Learning. 7. Geometric and Electronic Properties of Li+-based Battery Cathode: LixCo/NiO2 Compounds. 8. Graphene as an Anode Material in Lithium Ion Battery. 9. Liquid Plasma: A Synthesis of Carbon/Functionalized Nanocarbon for Battery, Solar Cell and Capacitor Applications. 10. Ionic Liquid-Based Electrolytes: Synthesis, Characteristic and Potential Application in Rechargeable Batteries. 11. Imidazolium-Based Ionogels via Facile Photopolymerization as Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Ion Batteries. 12. Back-Contact Perovskite Solar Cells. 13. Engineering of Conductive Polymer Using Simple Chemical Treatment in Silicon-Nanowire Based Hybrid Solar Cells. 14. Concluding Remarks. 15. Open Issues and Potential Applications. 16. Problems.