This book is dedicated to the study of structure and transport of deep and bottom waters above and through underwater channels of the Atlantic Ocean. The study is based on recent observations, analysis of historical data, and literature reviews. This approach allows us to understand how water transport and water mass prop- ties have changed over the last years and decades. The focus of our study is on the propagation of bottom waters in the Atlantic Ocean based on new field data at key points. At the end of the 1920s, the first integral study of water masses and bottom topography of the Central and South Atlantic was carried out from the German - search vessel Meteor. This German Atlantic Expedition was one of the first cruises equipped with the newly developed echo sounder (fathometer): an obligatory p- requisite for the investigation of bottom morphology in the deep sea on an - erational base. The results of the expedition were published by Wüst, Defant, and colleagues in the multivolume METEOR publication series starting with the cruise report by the ship’s commander (Spiess 1928, 1932). Historically, this series of p- lications, intermittently interrupted by World War II, was the basis for many years of research into the development of modern concepts about Atlantic water masses and their circulation schemes.